The Comprehensive Forklift Battery Guide


October 6, 2023

Forklifts are versatile workhorses that come in various shapes and sizes, from compact electric models ideal for tight spaces to rugged diesel-powered giants capable of tackling the most demanding tasks. With their ability to lift, lower and transport heavy loads, forklifts play a pivotal role in optimizing workflows and ensuring goods get to where they’re needed when they’re needed.

This forklift battery guide gives you insight into the different types of forklift batteries to help you make an informed decision.

Types of Forklift Batteries

Choosing the right forklift battery requires carefully evaluating your operational needs, budget constraints and environmental considerations. Each option has distinct advantages and drawbacks.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries operate on a simple electrochemical principle. They consist of lead dioxide as the positive plate, sponge lead as the negative plate and a sulfuric acid solution as the electrolyte. The chemical reactions between these components generate electrical energy.

Lead-acid batteries find their niche in warehouses with steady, predictable workloads, where their lower upfront cost and established reliability make them an attractive option.

The pros of using lead-acid batteries for forklifts include:

  • Cost-effective: Lead-acid batteries are generally more budget-friendly upfront compared to other options.
  • Proven technology: They have a long-standing track record in the industry, making them a reliable choice.
  • Robust and durable: These batteries can withstand demanding operational conditions.
  • Widely available: Replacement parts and service providers are abundant.

The cons of this battery include:

  • Weight and size: Lead-acid batteries tend to be heavier and larger, affecting the forklift’s maneuverability.
  • Maintenance intensive: Regular watering and cleaning are necessary to extend their life span.
  • Environmental impact: Disposing of lead-acid batteries requires careful handling due to environmental hazards.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries use lithium ions to shuttle between the positive and negative electrodes, releasing energy during the process.

There are several advantages to using lithium-ion batteries, including:

  • High energy density: Lithium-ion batteries offer more power in a smaller, lighter package, optimizing forklift performance.
  • Longer life span: These batteries typically have a longer cycle life than lead-acid batteries.
  • Fast charging: Rapid charging capabilities reduce downtime.
  • Maintenance-free: There’s no need for watering or regular cleaning.
  • Environmentally friendly: Lithium-ion batteries are greener due to fewer toxic materials.

Here are the cons:

  • Higher initial cost: They require a more substantial upfront investment.
  • Specialized maintenance: Service and repairs may necessitate trained technicians.
  • Temperature sensitivity: Extreme temperatures can affect performance and safety.

Lithium-ion batteries shine in high-demand environments, where fast-charging capabilities and prolonged life span justify the initial investment. Industries with 24/7 operations, such as e-commerce and manufacturing, benefit from these forklift batteries immensely.

Fuel Cell Batteries

Fuel cell batteries employ hydrogen gas and oxygen to generate electricity through electrochemical processes, producing only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell forklifts are the best choice for forward-thinking companies aiming to reduce their carbon footprint. They are particularly well-suited for industries with access to hydrogen refuelling stations and a commitment to sustainability.

Let’s look at some of the advantages of this battery:

  • Zero emissions: Fuel cell batteries are environmentally friendly, emitting only water vapour.
  • Quick refuelling: Refueling is as fast as traditional combustion engines.
  • Consistent performance: They provide steady power output until hydrogen is depleted.

The cons of fuel-cell batteries are:

  • Infrastructure: Hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is limited in many regions.
  • Higher initial cost: Fuel cell forklifts and their infrastructure can be expensive.
  • Hydrogen storage: Proper hydrogen storage and handling are essential for safety.

Choosing the Right Forklift Battery

Selecting the right forklift battery requires a comprehensive understanding of your operational needs. In this section, we’ll guide you through the meticulous process of making this pivotal choice.

  • Weight capacity: Begin by evaluating the weight capacity requirements of your forklift fleet. Different forklift batteries have varying energy outputs, and selecting the right one ensures your fleet can handle the loads efficiently.
  • Battery life: Assess the battery’s life span, as it directly influences maintenance costs and operational downtime. Longer-lasting batteries might have a higher upfront cost but can prove more economical over time.
  • Charging infrastructure: Different battery types may require distinct charging setups. Consider your existing charging infrastructure or the feasibility of implementing one.
  • Environmental impact: Lithium-ion and fuel cell batteries are more eco-friendly than lead-acid batteries, which require proper disposal and maintenance.
  • Energy and power requirements: Battery capacity and voltage should align with your fleet’s workload to ensure uninterrupted operations.
  • Budget: While making an initial investment, balancing your budget constraints with long-term savings is essential. Consider the total cost of ownership, including purchase, maintenance and energy costs over the battery’s life span.

Extending Forklift Battery Life

By implementing these battery care strategies, you can extend the life span of your forklift batteries, reduce maintenance costs and maximize the return on your investment.

  • Proper storage: Store your forklift batteries in a cool, dry and well-ventilated area when not in use. Keep them away from extreme temperatures and direct sunlight.
  • Avoiding extreme temperatures: High temperatures can lead to accelerated battery degradation. Conversely, extremely cold conditions can reduce a battery’s capacity and slow its chemical processes. Implement temperature control measures when necessary.
  • Safety precautions: Train your staff in safe battery handling procedures, including using personal protective equipment. Mishandling batteries can lead to damage, acid leaks or accidents.

You can extend a battery’s life span with regular maintenance routines. Regularly inspect battery terminals, cables and connectors for signs of wear, corrosion or damage. Clean any buildup of dirt or debris promptly.

Keep a close eye on your batteries’ performance metrics, such as capacity and charging efficiency. Consider refurbishment or replacement to avoid downtime and maintain productivity when they deteriorate significantly.

Lastly, periodically perform an equalizing charge, which helps balance the cells within the battery. This practice can extend battery life by preventing cell imbalances.

When your battery is in use, conduct the following best practices:

  • Opportunity charging: Consider implementing opportunity charging during short breaks or idle times. This practice can help maintain a higher state of charge, prolonging battery life.
  • Avoiding deep discharges: Prevent deep discharges, which can strain the battery and reduce its life span.
  • Proper watering: If you use lead-acid batteries, regularly monitor water levels and top them up with distilled water. Maintaining proper water levels helps prevent damage to the cells.

Contact YIT for Forklift Batteries in Quebec and Ontario, Canada

At YIT, we understand the significance of forklift batteries in your operations. That’s why we’ve joined forces with Enersys, a recognized leader in battery technologies. Through this collaboration, we offer you access to cutting-edge forklift battery solutions that elevate your warehouse efficiency and lower your total cost of ownership. 

As you navigate the ever-evolving landscape of material handling, we encourage you to reach out to us to explore how YIT and Enersys can empower your warehouse with reliable, efficient and sustainable forklift battery solutions.

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